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Ontological Appropriation: Boulez and Artaud | EX0-110 test dumps and Free test PDF

In his 1963 article ‘Dire, jouer, chanter’, Pierre Boulez (1925–2016) explained his use of definite exotic sounds in Le Marteau sans maître. ‘I chose this “physique” of instruments with the have an effect on of additional-European civilizations’, he wrote: ‘the xylophone transposes the African balafon, the vibraphone refers to the Balinese gender, and the guitar remembers the jap koto’.Footnote 1 The composer insisted, although, that ‘neither the trend nor the very use of those instruments is connected in any method to the traditions of these different musical civilizations’.Footnote 2 Boulez didn't want to signify the track of peoples outdoor Europe as an ethnologist may when organizing artefacts right into a colonial exhibition. rather, once purified of context, these sounds would ‘enrich the european sonic vocabulary through added-European listening’, and, Boulez hoped, have a clean and estranging impact on the listener acquainted with typical western timbres. With this move, Boulez additionally hoped to sever his chosen sounds and harmonies from the historical baggage of the classical culture, and consequently to extend the presence of music in its second. during this endeavour he took a cue from the creator of the Theatre of Cruelty. ‘song should be collective hysteria and enchantment’, wrote Boulez in 1947, ‘violently up to date – following the path of Antonin Artaud, and never a simple ethnographic reconstruction within the picture of civilizations greater or less remote from us’.Footnote 3

What does it suggest for a composer to take sounds from the ethnographic other with out ‘reconstructing’ the other? this text will argue that Boulez's endeavour to aestheticize the ‘hysteria’ he perceived in the subculture of the other was a moment of ontological appropriation, turning the different into sound. Composers of paintings music had long sought fresh styles and new sounds through reconstructing a non-European other, even if through Mozart's imitations of Turkish track, the exoticized characters of Bizet's Carmen, or the rhythmic counterpoint that drew Debussy to Javanese Gamelan. I imply that these endeavours to imagine and to acceptable ‘extra-European’ sounds grew to become specially ‘ontological’ by means of the mid-twentieth century. Boulez's goal changed into not to reconstruct a specific other. somewhat, sound become the different: it emanated from someplace extraordinary and primitive, carrying a visceral immediacy that could be leveraged to puncture the façade of western musical which means. Boulez sought a compositional components that would, to make use of his own time period, render sound neutral: a sonic colour in preference to a musical sign; a ‘pure’ best as opposed to a illustration.Footnote 4 i will argue that Boulez's compositional approach prefigured exact claims on behalf of the ontology of sound: that sound can put us in touch with a global extra precise, or most likely that sound without difficulty is the precise. This look for pure sound, a routine chorus of twentieth-century musical modernism, is, and at all times has been, inherently ethnocentric. it is a procedure of making sound ontological.

whereas the query of otherness is seldom addressed in scholarship on Boulez, it is clear that his feel of sound developed as he reconstructed ‘additional-European’ expressions in sonic form.Footnote 5 in the first part of this article, i use Artaud as a foil to discover how Boulez's idea of musical writing – or écriture, his medium to write sonic ‘hysteria’ – took shape as he distilled and sublimated otherness. while Boulez credited Artaud with forging a method of expression that might re-create ‘collective hysteria and enchantment’ without aspiring to realist ethnographic illustration, the composer endeavoured to push Artaud's expressive vogue beyond what even the theatre guru had executed. For Artaud regularly stated the sources of his ‘delirium’: he mimicked the rituals of the Rarámuri tribe of Mexico, infusing his performances with cries, gasps, and ululations, a method of vocal performance that neatly captured, as Boulez put it, ‘the basic preoccupations of tune today’.Footnote 6 Boulez's exoticism, against this, become extra veiled: instead of follow Artaud to accentuate the alterity of the other, Boulez sought instead to purify or occlude otherness, a stance that can also be viewed as continual with surrealism.

The strategy Boulez took to sound could be called ‘ontological’ because he handled sound as anything extra ‘true’ – greater evocative and powerful – than the rest that had been, or can be, expressed in the course of the normative musical languages of the western culture. In what follows, i'll first imply that Boulez's philosophy of writing hinged on an ideological distinction between ‘the West’ and the relaxation, and then will comply with the composer to South the usa with the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault to listen to how he filtered sounds from an ‘extra-European’ source that he in no way mentioned outright: Afro-Bahian Candomblé. i'll indicate that Boulez modelled the poetics of one stream of Le Marteau sans maître, the ‘Commentaire I de “Bourreaux de solitude”’, on the ritual of spirit possession he witnessed in Bahia in the enterprise of actor and director Jean-Louis Barrault (1910–94). in contrast to Barrault, who claimed that the Candomblé embodied the essence of Greek tragedy, Boulez neither wanted nor cared to show the Candomblé into an allegory for an long-established western essence. The ‘delirium’ of Candomblé practitioners within the throes of genuine spasms and amid abrupt vocal utterances – the kinds of experiences that Artaud emulated at once – took sonic kind in Le Marteau. As Boulez modelled the ‘Commentaire’ on a fictive narrative of spirit possession, I suggest, sound grew to be an allegory, a figure for an long-established essence and a sort of elemental force.

Boulez's sounds are still with us these days. Following Christoph Cox or Nina solar Eidsheim, one might argue that a supra-audible ‘sonic flux’ or reality of vibrating depend exists beyond human notion, a virtual ground for the sounds that we actualize once we make track.Footnote 7 The concluding component of this article suggests that each scholar who holds that sound is a hyperlink to the precise, to a reality past or behind what we will be aware of and symbolize, implicitly depends on a notion of sound as allegory – a proposal that links sound studies to Boulez and a bunch of his contemporaries in France. This angle against sound, commonly touted as a way to feel beyond entrenched West-versus-East and Self-versus-other dualisms, hazards re-inscribing these dualisms on an ever-deeper level. The difficulty is not with pondering imaginatively about sound, however with the philosophical conception that guides scholars to take sound as an allegory for fact and truth: ontology.Footnote 8

The term ‘ontology’ has enjoyed a resurgence of late as a marker of a sort of cultural relativism following the ‘ontological flip’ in anthropology and as a substitute for ‘aesthetic autonomy’ in sound studies. despite the fact, i am not convinced that the idea of ontology can be purged of its historical past as a ‘philosophy of vigour’, to cite a phrase from Emmanuel Levinas.Footnote 9 The very conception of ontology presupposes a relation between the knower and the typical such that the well-known entity, via fitting an object of competencies and a determine of western writing, loses its alterity.Footnote 10 Levinas coined the term ‘ontological imperialism’ to describe the greedy egotism during which ‘the West’ constitutes itself with the aid of first imagining and then incorporating the other.Footnote eleven To the extent that Boulez tried to transmute ‘additional-European’ sounds into the realm of musical writing, he become an ‘ontological imperialist’. He constituted an idea of sound, no longer by way of representing the other as different, but through subsuming the different into the same. fresh scholarship, too, treats sound as a determine of radical alterity, yet sonic allegory becomes a means to bolster scholarly authority. the hunt for ‘pure’ sound has an unacknowledged modernist background.

Boulez, Artaud, and the ethnographic different

‘by the time he become eighteen’, biographer Joan Peyser writes, ‘Boulez had grew to become in opposition t his father, his nation, and everything else that had been held as much as him as sacred … . He repudiated Catholicism, spouting Latin obscenities when he became inebriated … he never studied beneath anyone man for any size of time, “detesting the father-son relationship”.’Footnote 12 whereas this part of Boulez's youth obviously had a robust Oedipal dimension, it changed into Boulez's defiance of the function of the religious Father in French society that made him so receptive to Artaud's cries, shouts, and profane challenges to God's judgement.

As Edward Campbell, Peter O'Hagan, and François Meïmoun recount, Boulez saw Artaud study his personal texts at Paris's Galerie Loeb in the summertime of 1947, witnessing the dramatist performing the forms of vocal expressions that would be recorded through the Radiodiffusion Française later that yr.Footnote 13 the printed Pour en finir avec le jugement de Dieu (recorded in November 1947) documents Artaud all through a duration of speedy physical decay following a sequence of electroshock treatments administered against his will at the Rodez asylum (1943–forty six).Footnote 14 The forty-minute broadcast carries readings of Artaud's texts with the aid of the creator himself, his friend (and later literary executrix) Paule Thévenin, and the actors Maria Casarès and Roger Blin. Censored via Radiodiffusion Française (RDF) just earlier than its surest in 1948 (due in gigantic half to Artaud's inclusion of anti-American rhetoric, sick-timed in the wake of the struggle), Pour en finir makes it possible for us to hear the voice that Boulez skilled reside that summer time.Footnote 15 In his opening unaccompanied monologue, Artaud shouts in his high register: ‘I learned yesterday’, after which pauses. His pacing deliberate, his rasping voice swooping low, he describes ‘one of the crucial sensational reputable practices of public American colleges’: a ‘sperm examine’ in which all young boys are required to supply sperm for the govt to build an artificial army. the usa now not simplest manufactured people, however also warships and plastic purchaser items, inaugurating ‘le règne … de tous les faux produits fabriques’ (‘the reign of fake fabricated products’) and replacing every little thing herbal with ‘les ignobles ersatz synthétiques’ (‘lousy ersatz synthetics’). These phrases come at the end of a series of brief phrases during which Artaud crescendos, charging the text with belligerent vocal expressions. On fabriques, his voice quivers as if a mocking snigger; on les ignobles ersatz, he tightens his throat, pushing air with huge energy to supply a guttural growling; and earlier than the last syllable of synthétiques, he pauses as if out of breath, setting apart the closing ‘-que’, a percussive click, from the leisure of the phrase. Artaud believed in the tune of spoken utterance, within the voice's capability to create meaning through its own contours, occasionally bolstering the literal meaning of a textual content or – during this case – working against the which means of the phrases (‘fabriques’, ‘synthétiques’).Footnote sixteen He rails towards an ersatz, synthetic American struggle computer and then introduces a contrasting figure: ‘i really like most the americans who devour off the very earth the delirium from which they're born.’ His voice shivers; he blurs ‘la terre’ (earth) to sound like ‘le délire’ (delirium); he whispers: ‘I communicate of the Tarahumaras … . for that reason you will take heed to the dance of the Tutuguri.’Footnote 17

The collective enchantment that enthralled Boulez become thus finished during the rites of the Rarámuri of the Sierra Tarahumara, whose peyote rituals, Artaud claimed, published a primordial state of being. After a silence, the subsequent component to Pour en finir starts off as Artaud screams, a pair of drums and a gong accompanying his ululations as he soars into his intense higher register. This crude ‘ethnographic reconstruction’ of a primitive ritual looks to account, in retrospect, for the stammering articulations and lengthy drawn-out pacing of the broadcast so far: Artaud speaks as if in a trance. Casarès then enters to read the ‘Dance of the Tutuguri’ text, her enraptured voice vibrating as Artaud's shouts proceed. This text describes a ritual through which six Rarámuri guys, every symbolizing a solar, encompass a seventh who races across a primordial land nude upon a horse. The dance culminates with the letting of blood and the ripping of Catholic crosses out of the Mexican soil.

For Boulez, Artaud's alternation of words with ‘shouts, noises, or rhythmic results’, and his effort to push vocal utterance past what any written textual content can carry, felt like an affirmation of the rising musical language that the composer was within the system of conceptualizing and placing into apply. ‘i'm not certified to discuss Antonin Artaud's use of language’, he wrote,

but i can have a look at in his writings the fundamental preoccupations of music these days; listening to him examine his own texts, accompanying them with shouts, noises, or rhythmic consequences, has shown us the way to have an effect on a fusion of sound and note, how to make the phoneme burst forth when the note can no longer do so, briefly a way to organize delirium.Footnote 18

Boulez's efforts to ‘take delirium and, sure, arrange it’, besides the fact that children, masked Artaud's express exoticism. in all probability we can hear whatever of Artaud's ‘shouts, noises, and rhythmic effects’ within the musical language that Boulez cast in his Piano Sonata no. 2 (1948), written after Boulez heard the raving dramatist in grownup.Footnote 19 right through the climax of the fourth and final movement, Boulez prompts the performer to ‘pulverize the sound’ in a short passage composed of a quick-fireplace succession of quavers and semiquavers leaping between the intense high and low registers of the piano – rhythmic results. This harried returned-and-forth movement culminates with attacked chordal clusters – shouts – earlier than a collection of connected pitches within the left hand (marked ‘Élargir rapidement’: increasing directly) winds upwards in opposition t a group of descending dyads in the intense excessive range – noises. Boulez commands the pianist to play ‘in a extremely robust coloration’, to sound ‘exasperated’, starting off one other phrase of leaps.

Boulez put little inventory in verisimilitude, refusing musical ‘topics’ that his listeners or critics could have taken to characterize photographs or scenes in a story mode. however besides the fact that children he downplayed the representational feature of track – just as he disdained ‘standard ethnographic reconstruction’ – Boulez's musical gestures have been frequently visceral, demanding an identification between his listeners and performers on a corporeal level. His early pianistic language may no longer ‘symbolize’, however certainly gifts swift leaps, sweeps, and chordal clusters, modes of assault that have been part of the composer's endeavour to forge a brand new variety of musical experience – a pianism in any other case.

Boulez's thought of écriture, the French term that connotes now not handiest literal inscription but additionally the symbolic reasoning at the back of it,Footnote 20 took shape via a compositional apply that consisted of developing contrasts comparable to that between the leaping attacks of the Piano Sonata no. 2 – by which pitches appear to be both remoted or slammed together – and moments by which successive notes are easily related into lyrical fragments. Boulez's musical language consisted of opposing facets like this, a dialectical approach to timbre and phrasing that Jonathan Goldman describes through various binaries: determine versus structure (i.e., half versus whole), chord-figure versus interval-scale (i.e., ‘chord’ versus ‘scale’, or vertical versus horizontal construction), and clean versus striated time – the list goes on.Footnote 21 Boulez owed this approach partially to the voice that we can hear in Pour en finir. Rasping and low in one moment, then quietly drawing breath; abruptly shouting and leaping into the falsetto; finally slowing, stuttering, gasping out of breath: this voice is a mannequin additionally for the sonic palette of the Livre pour quatuor (1948–49, 1959–60).Footnote 22 With every flow structured round a contrast between longer resonant tones and brief percussive attacks, the violent oppositions of vocal sounds echo in ever extra summary kind.Footnote 23 the primary 4 bars of flow 1b of the Livre, for example, feature a series of intervallic leaps, beginning in the viola and echoed through the violin, which preserve long tones within the upper register against a quiet cello attack below, pizzicato. After a fermata, the 2nd short phrase is abrupt, the cello rushing upward to meet the trills and pitch clusters in the violins

Scholarly writing on Boulez, which seldom addresses the query of otherness, is frequently caught in a hermeneutic ‘double bind’. by means of approaching the track as an object that requires laborious decoding (searching for the tone rows and tracing their genealogies, as an example), we in all probability omit a few of its most astounding characteristics.Footnote 24 One doesn't should pay attention ‘hermeneutically’ to listen to that the ethnographic other is easily there within the music; yet after we delve under the surface for compositional processes and deep structures, the different vanishes. here is a problem that looks to hang-out studies of Boulez (and, more often, of serialism): the rigorous strategies employed in growing this track appear to demand decoding, as if there's all the time a hidden order in the back of each musical utterance. but exactly after we interact in decoding, the tune's ‘otherness’ is concealed.

This double position, i would like to imply, changed into part of Boulez's distinct mode of appropriation. In contrast with Artaud, who sought to latest the ‘further-European’ as radically other, Boulez sought to occlude change, and musical writing became his medium to achieve this. This mode of appropriation thinking a particular attitude towards sound and writing that Boulez obtained partly through Artaud, but also through a larger circulation of which Artaud was – at least originally – a part. although he broke from the reputable surrealist community led by way of André Breton (1896–1966) in or about 1926, Artaud retained whatever thing of the surrealist attitude towards cultural order and that means. This angle had to do with re-assessing ‘the West’ in terms of its newly exhibited others: as James Clifford has suggested, the artefacts imported from France's colonial possessions indicated – to Breton and to other surrealists – that ‘way of life and its norms – beauty, reality, fact’ have been purely ‘artificial preparations, liable to indifferent evaluation and assessment with different possible inclinations’.Footnote 25 indifferent evaluation and assessment had been significant in the rising ‘ethnographic surrealist’ view of cultural order – a view in accordance with which western subculture is in basic terms an arbitrary collection of indications able to be reconfigured and jumbled like objects on display in an ethnographic museum. We could call the surrealist mode of appropriation, then, a symbolic mode, considering the poet was to interact with society's signals on a second-order degree of remark: fragmenting and juxtaposing verbal signifiers so as, as Breton once quipped, to widen the gaps ‘between the phrases’. through the hodgepodge common sense of the dream, Breton's surrealism aimed to re-applicable society's signs to new expressive ends.Footnote 26

while second-order reflection on way of life and its signals become an important factor of the ethnographic surrealist outlook, Artaud took a unique tact: the ‘extra-European’ looks to have impelled him to intensify the primary-order gut reactions you can actually have within the presence of efficiency. Artaud's mode of appropriation may optimal be termed an affective mode on account of the emphasis he placed on bodily immediacy: he sought to plunge headlong into the unconscious abyss that Breton's surrealism opened up ‘between the phrases’. ‘it is basic to position an conclusion to the subjugation of the theater to the text’, Artaud declared in his 1932 Manifesto of the Theater of Cruelty, ‘and to recover the proposal of a sort of unique language half-means between gesture and notion’.Footnote 27 The sound of Artaud's voice, echoing in Pour en finir, offers us a way of how this language was to work. phrases become gesture through the act of enunciating them with surprising shouts, leaps, and screams – that's, by means of filling the gaps ‘between the phrases’ with sound. The normative written techniques of western theatre were therefore inadequate to have the funds for the kind of expression that Artaud sought to make obtainable. The movements and utterances of Artaud's gold standard theatre would are living simplest for a second, beyond what could be written and repeated from analyzing a script; hence, ‘let us leave textual criticism to graduate students, formal criticism to esthetes’, he exhorted, ‘and appreciate that what has been pointed out isn't nevertheless to be spoke of … that each one phrases, once spoken, are useless and performance only in the meanwhile when they're uttered’. this is why ‘the theater is the only vicinity in the world the place a gesture, once made, can certainly not be made the identical manner twice’.Footnote 28 At stake for Artaud changed into the rivalry that the tradition of the West had been dominated through a theological metaphysics in response to which lifestyles in the world – like the actions on a stage – are subordinate to an normal presence, the Divine be aware contained in the texts of the Bible, or the theatrical be aware written in a phonetic script. ‘Cruelty’ no longer only intended engulfing viewers in a sensory barrage – producing the forms of visceral gestures that we can hear, as an example, when Boulez's pianist ‘pulverizes the sound’ – however also demanded a dedication to staying as close as possible to the limit of representability.Footnote 29 instead of confront society on the stage of its representations, Artaud dreamed of a pure presence, an ideal of immediacy and un-representability. hence the Theatre of Cruelty, in Jacques Derrida's words, often is the art of ‘pure presence as pure difference’: it would circulate like a language, carrying a signifying drive, yet without forming iterable signals.Footnote 30 Producing an at all times-renewed effect of presence, a merciless theatre would searching for to elide the flow and mechanisms of re-presentation.

but, like Boulez, Artaud necessary writing. As we've already considered, ethnographic reconstruction was a part of how the dramatist enacted his ‘pure presence’, and he expected Boulez's own seek a new sort of writing that might organize the delirium that Artaud speculated to emanate from Mexico or in other places. Artaud noticed a vision of this new writing when he witnessed Balinese theatre on the 1931 Exposition coloniale held in the wooded area of Vincennes outside Paris. There, the French government hosted businesses of individuals from Africa, Oceania, West India, and other colonies to display arts, to make food and crafts – together with the Oceanic artefacts that interested Breton – and to operate song and dance just like the Balinese spectacles that Artaud witnessed, claiming that the Balinese embodied ‘the thought of pure theater’.Footnote 31 it's doubtful (to us) what Artaud definitely noticed at the Exposition, though he wrote of Balinese theatre as if it was a collage of ritualistic movements, music and poetry, costume and other visual features – all performing earlier than his eyes as a sort of hieroglyphic writing. These ‘spiritual signs’, he declared, ‘[strike] us only intuitively however with satisfactory violence to make needless any translation into logical discursive language’.Footnote 32 The non-phonetic writing of Artaud's most appropriate theatre would prepare configurations of our bodies and objects, mapping out events; for this reason it will silence the voice of the absent creator-creator, all in an endeavour to approximate the immediacy of ‘chinese language ideograms or Egyptian hieroglyphs’. as opposed to inscribe dialogue, staging instructions, etc, this writing would directly deal ‘with objects … like photos, like words, bringing them together and making them respond to each and every other’.Footnote 33 besides the fact that children, whereas this new non-phonetic writing would bypass the written voice of the writer, it will not silence the voice of the actor. far from it: Artaud insisted that the hieroglyph would supply a new vicinity to voice, to the true embodied voice onstage, because vocal sounds would not be texted, reproducible, and representable. He dreamed of a radically different voice.

Boulez stood at a distance from the symbolic and affective modes of appropriation that characterised Breton's surrealism and Artaudian cruelty, however, as I have suggested, Artaud's vocal sounds continued to echo beneath Boulez's pen. we can hear how Boulez entextualized the ‘delirium’ that he heard in Artaud into an abstract musical language.Footnote 34 however whereas the composer aimed to provide sudden first-order gut reactions via musical violence, he also mirrored – in published essays and later lectures – on the methods in which this violence could be produced. He sought a technique during which to construct upon the ‘pure presence’ of Artaudian expression, taking up Artaud's aesthetic most excellent into an important musical writing. With the emphasis he positioned on writing and structure, hence, Boulez placed himself as a part of a lineage of French artists and intellectuals main from the ethnographic surrealist second of Paris's interwar years in opposition t the mid-century, by which big theoretical weight grew to be attached to the idea that tradition is written. The surrealist conviction that splendor, fact, and fact are mere products of symbolic preparations laid the groundwork, as Clifford suggested, for the ‘semiotic’ view of cultural order that you can actually read, as an instance, in Roland Barthes's noted claim that ‘every thing can be a myth, supplied it's conveyed by a discourse’. If way of life is a collection of signs, then forms of discourse – ‘modes of writing or of representations; no longer only written discourse however also images, cinema, reporting, activity, suggests, publicity’ – inevitably entwine themselves with vigour.Footnote 35 Artaud, in in search of a form of vocal utterance beyond the ‘legendary speech’ that had upheld bourgeois normativity, gave a particular privilege to sound as a automobile of transgression – this is the kind of sound we can hear in Boulez.

Boulez's stance towards sound changed into imminently surrealist considering that it became a musical response – albeit a very summary response – to the transgressive aesthetic put ahead all the way through the surrealist years. As Clifford wrote, ‘the unique [was] a primary courtroom of enchantment towards the rational, the desirable, the ordinary of the West’, permitting thinkers in the surrealist camp similar to Georges Bataille – heir of a transgressive avant-garde spirit that dates back at the least to Baudelaire – to deconstruct the hallowed beliefs of western way of life with the aid of claiming that every cultural norm contains and conceals its obverse. Tonal harmony, on this view, is one European social delusion among others, tired and two-confronted: confront tonal concord with its other – dissonance – or confront respectable with evil, piety with perversion, and one can see that each norm consists of the seeds of its own dissolution. This valorization of transgression, in Clifford's phrases, ‘[provides] an important continuity in the ongoing relation of cultural evaluation and surrealism in France’. The present article is intended as an entryway to verify the position that music and sound played in organising this transgressive aesthetic – a classy that links ‘the twenties context of surrealism suitable to a later technology of radical critics’.Footnote 36 The jumble of non-European signs presented at colonial exhibitions (and later housed in the Musée de l'Homme) no longer most effective prefigured the semiotic view of cultural order in vogue by means of Derrida's day, however also counseled that new and violent sounds – ‘shouts, noises, and rhythmic results’ – might echo from between the cracks in western cultural that means. via liberating a circulate of speech through surrealist automatic writing, or by means of shouting, stuttering, and talking in tongues, sound became ‘other’: that which resounds past the norms of pictorial and linguistic illustration, ‘between the words’. therefore the free play of indications was not handiest Oriental, but was in particular sonic. this is the Artaud that Boulez found so eye-catching:

[B]y an altogether Oriental capacity of expression, this objective and concrete language of the theater can facilitate and ensnare the organs. It flows into the sensibility. abandoning Occidental usages of speech, it turns phrases into incantations. It extends the voice. It makes use of the vibrations and characteristics of the voice. It wildly tramples rhythms underfoot. It pile-drives sounds … . It sooner or later breaks away from the highbrow subjugation of the language, by conveying the feel of a new and deeper intellectuality which hides itself underneath the gestures and signs, raised to the honour of selected exorcisms.Footnote 37

Ontological appropriation

In his disavowal of ‘ethnographic reconstruction’, we are able to experience that Boulez distanced himself from Artaud while he drew proposal from the theatre theorist. The ethnographic other became no longer a favourable option to ‘the West’ for Boulez. youngsters, as i hope to reveal, Artaud and Boulez each participated in the mutual development of ‘the West’ as hostile to ‘the relaxation’, an opposition that undergirded each artist's simple views about their respective media – theatre and tune. Boulez's mode of appropriation was ontological because he aimed to reconstruct the ‘hysteria’ of the different at an ontological eradicate from any certain americans or location. He whitewashed ‘further-European’ sounds in an endeavour to create what he referred to as ‘pure sounds – fundamentals and herbal harmonics’ that could be subsumed inside a musical textile.Footnote 38 This system of purification become at all times part of Boulez's stance against sound, a part of his personal transgressive modernist aesthetic. Yet, as this part will display, the look for a new sort of écriture tied Boulez and Artaud to a plenty older, and explicitly ethnocentric, philosophy of writing.

In apply, Boulez's écriture changed into a medium to organize delirium, and in thought, too, écriture hinged on a difference between individualized sound and neutral sound, itself a species of a extra standard dichotomy between a western self and the ethnographic different. ‘The greater a sound has fabulous particular person features, the less conformable it should be to different sounding phenomena’, in its place ‘[preserving] its own particular person profile’, brought up Boulez in a 1994 lecture at the Collège de France.Footnote 39 during this he echoed a trope that he had voiced lots earlier in a 1949 preface to John Cage's Sonatas and Interludes. Expressing a deep admire for Cage's use of ‘non-tempered sound spaces’ as well as ‘sound complexes’ in his experiments with the prepared piano, Boulez nevertheless counseled (reasonably subtly on the time) that his American correspondent turned into barking up the incorrect tree.Footnote 40 Cage did not produce pure sound, relying as a substitute on the individualized traits of sounds made from placing bits of steel, screws, and paper clips amid the piano strings. This endeavour, inspiring and clean even though it become for the young Boulez, eventually constituted a regression in musical thinking. In a 1972 dialog with Célestin Deliège smartly after Boulez and Cage parted techniques, Boulez aligned Cage's use of individualized sounds with the twanging and buzzing of the African sanza (or mbira): ‘within the song of some African peoples (no longer probably the most tremendously-developed from the musical element of view) we discover an instrument, the sanza, that has vibrating blades [which] may make up a impartial universe – they form a scale it's fixed and modal, as all African scales are.’Footnote forty one with out the mutes and resonant rings that mbira avid gamers attach to the vibrating blades, the sounds of the blades ‘might’ be impartial, simply because the notes of a piano are neutral before a composer inserts particles between the strings.

Boulez's mention of an African instrument bespeaks the composer's hobby in non-European contraptions, an pastime that he developed somewhat early in his musical lifestyles as he honed his composerly potential by means of transcribing musics from outside Europe – a practice that without doubt counseled Boulez's view of individualized versus neutral sound. right through the summer of 1945, whereas a pupil at the Paris Conservatoire, Boulez heard Balinese song in a category with Olivier Messiaen, and as he would later account, ‘dreamed, for a moment, of that specialize in musicology: no longer in the look at of texts, however in ethnomusicological investigation in reference to a branch of the Musée de l'Homme or the Musée Guimet’.Footnote forty two This became now not only a dream: after paying attention to discs of numerous non-European musics, Boulez deliberate to head on an ethnological day trip to Cambodia and Laos hosted by way of the Musée Guimet in 1946, a voyage directly cancelled as the First Indochina war broke out that iciness.Footnote 43 In education, however, Boulez transcribed a considerable number of songs including a ‘Laotian tune of possession’ for two voices.Footnote forty four This became an ethnographic reconstruction within the most literal feel: in accordance with Luisa Bassetto, the composer likely jotted down this track – as well as others from Cambodia and Cameroon – fairly without delay, in all probability as part of a dictation look at various ahead of the ethnographic voyage.Footnote forty five Transcriptions like these are precisely what the Boulez of 1947 would surrender as Artaud's voice rang in his ears. effectively reconstructing (i.e., transcribing) the sounds of ‘further-European’ ritual or religious apply did not go a long way sufficient for the restive composer, who in the end didn't seek ethnomusicological capabilities for its personal sake, however quite for the sake of increasing the timbral and rhythmic percentages purchasable in new track.

Boulez adopted (through default) a Eurocentric view in accordance with which musical writing enables for a stage of abstraction and class unknown in cultures that lack a written musical gadget, and his transcriptions of these songs provide us a hint about what neutral sound got here to imply for him. whereas the recordings housed in ethnographic collections – including those of André Schaeffner, whom Boulez would meet in 1949 and with whom he would correspond for pretty much two decades – exerted a specific allure for the composer, he was most drawn to exploring what a song of spirit possession may become in the course of the act of transcribing it and getting to know its written kind. while Cage (from Boulez's standpoint, anyway) in all probability would have believed that the particular qualities of sounds – Laotian or otherwise – had been interesting sufficient on their own, Boulez felt that merely letting sound be sound (to paraphrase a smartly-worn Cage-ism) became insufficient. Sound needed to pass during the medium of écriture – Boulez's medium – to basically develop into tune. there's in all probability no stronger summation of Boulez's tackle the change between his and Cage's tactics to sounds – and, for our applications, of Boulez's own sense of the difference between individual and impartial sounds – than his observation in the 1949 Cage essay: ‘Noise does indeed have a extremely first-rate immediate physical effect, but employing here's unhealthy, considering its novelty hastily wears off’.Footnote forty six Noise can strike us powerfully, however handiest so many times. Buzzing and twanging are insufficient. as a way to preserve the immediate genuine effect of noise, perhaps to base a musical language on its visceral presence, a composer need to put sound through écriture.Footnote forty seven

For Boulez, Cage's approach to sound changed into not only fallacious; it was primitive. ‘In that kind of musical civilization’ – Africa – ‘and with an instrument of this model’ – the mbira – ‘the procedure has every justification’: these civilizations are elementary.Footnote 48 however it could be unjust and ‘contrary to the whole evolution of song’ for a ecu composer ‘to delimit an instrument within enormously normal and individualized traits, considering that we're relocating more and more in the direction of relativity’, that is, against rendering sound impartial.Footnote 49 best impartial sounds will also be subsumed right into a broader texture, permitting their ‘proper’ individuality to ring.

Of course, Boulez's certain strategy to sound advanced: the violent gestural language of the Deuxième sonate, the device of complete serialism during which Boulez composed buildings I (1952), and the computer systems in use at IRCAM two many years later, signify diverse moments in Boulez's development – he was at all times on the movement. Yet, regardless of the a lot of methods that Boulez cultivated, his fundamental view of sound and writing looks not to have changed all the way through his profession. ‘neutral’ or ‘pure’ sound was a long-lasting conceit, and on account that sound can most effective be ‘impartial’ as soon as it's written – this is, as soon as it passes through écriture – impartial sound is only accessible to a western composer whereas unwritten ‘added-European’ sounds are always ‘individualized’. The term écriture, therefore, not simplest connotes a compositional system – which may also exchange through time – but additionally, greater basically, contains a philosophical view of writing premised on the change, formally and ideologically, between individual (primitive) and impartial (written) sound. Like one of his early influences, Boris de Schloezer, Boulez believed that écriture allowed for an idealization of sound that became unattainable, as soon as once again, in cultures that lack a written language. The identical year he heard Artaud at the Galerie Loeb, Boulez studied Schloezer's newly published Introduction à J.-S. Bach (1947), in which the musicologist, watching for Boulez's own attitude against the mbira, claimed that non-western musical cultures have been restrained to the cloth situations of their gadgets. ‘The elementary characteristic of the house elaborated by western musical lifestyle’, Schloezer trumpeted, ‘is its complete independence from sonorous material.’Footnote 50 although these remarks are available in the context of a work committed to Bach, at this moment of the textual content Schloezer's argument turns into large and sweeping, having greater to do with a necessary view of western versus non-western musical techniques than with any selected composer. during the medium of writing, a composer takes a sound as a ‘quantity’, no longer as a material element, amounting to a ‘dematerialization’ of the sound house.Footnote fifty one

It is thru Schloezer's affirmation of the western composer's writerly authority – his claim that the ‘artistic act of the artist is to embody this number, to can charge it with a definite reality, to confer a qualitative value upon it’ – that we can hear the echoes of an past philosophy of writing. by affirming that western phonetic writing is the Aufhebung or ‘sublation’ of non-western sorts of writing, G. W. F. Hegel carried out the sort of ‘dematerialization’ that characterized Schloezer's concept of the western sound area. ‘Intelligence expresses itself immediately and unconditionally through speech’, Hegel proclaimed, declaring that hieroglyphic or pictographic scripts are in simple terms material.Footnote fifty two A pictogram creates that means throughout the genuine hint of a notice, whereas phonetic writing prompts the medium of voice, floating free of materiality.

at the same time as Artaud disdained the metaphysics of phonetic writing, he still relied implicitly on this metaphysics. in accordance with this metaphysics – which Derrida famously termed logocentrism – the presence of voice, of vocal sound, provides western types of writing a privileged ontological reputation.Footnote 53 even though Artaud sought, in his personal theory of the theatre, to disavow the representational norms of theatrical writing in ‘the West’ (as he construed it), the theatre theorist's dream of a ‘hieroglyphic’ writing hinged on the identical East–West dualism that Derrida present in Hegel's philosophy. And however Boulez's personal musical writing was on no account, strictly talking, ‘phonetic’, écriture become his car to subsume expressions drawn from sources outside of Europe. therefore the distance between ‘us’ and ‘them’, between ‘the West’ and the leisure, became no longer handiest affirmed however additionally served as a fundamental premise of Boulez's musical language during the a variety of levels of his development. to listen to how Boulez ‘dematerialized’ the sounds of Europe's others in a a little later phase, let us comply with him to South the united states with the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault. in the length following his early stumble upon with Artaud, Boulez's lifelong quest for ‘pure’ or impartial sound took form as he heard the percussion of Afro-Bahian ritual, sounds that fuelled his endeavour, as he later put it, to ‘take in’ non-European sounds into the summary and most fulfilling area of western song.

‘A magical Greece’: Bahian ritual in Le Marteau sans maître

[This], for me, is terribly vital: that we soak up other cultures no longer only by means of their content, however additionally by the way they are transmitted through sound.

– Boulez, from a late interviewFootnote 54

because the musical director of the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault (from approximately 1946 to 1956), Boulez encountered many ‘further-European’ sounds. ‘i'm already again at work on Le “Marteau sans maître”’, he wrote to Stockhausen in August 1954 while on a ship from Brazil to Dakar.Footnote 55 ‘I've introduced back a haul of ‘exotic’ instruments: wooden bells, double bells fabricated from iron [‘cloches doubles en fer’], Indian flute, little Indian guitar, frame drum, bells [‘grelots’], Jew's harp [‘birimbao’] (a really curious instrument from Bahia, but of African beginning).’Footnote 56 This curious collection supports Boulez's admission that the timbral palette of Le Marteau sans maître derived from sources beyond the borders of Europe, however the connection between Le Marteau and Brazil goes a step additional. whereas travelling Bahia during the Compagnie's tours of 1950 and 1954, Boulez and Barrault witnessed non secular rituals that the composer dismissed as ‘ineffectual rites and cults’ and that the actor championed as expressions of the essence of Greek tragedy.Footnote fifty seven ‘I saw macumba’, Boulez stated – a term that refers to many varieties of Afro-Brazilian magico-ritual follow.Footnote 58 ‘Some fully magnificent things befell’, he persisted: ‘I bear in mind now, as an example, that there become a black man who weighed as a minimum one hundred ten kilos, massive’; after entering trance, ‘he spun like a spinning excellent, very directly’, and while ‘all of this … gave the impression very bad and violent from time to time, it eventually was no longer at all, when you consider that you have children from four- or 5-years historical within the core of all of it’.Footnote 59 What Boulez and Barrault probably saw in Bahia become a Candomblé xirê or ‘liturgy’. The term ‘Candomblé’ connotes numerous non secular practices of West African beginning.Footnote 60 as soon as imported to Brazil beginning in the early nineteenth century, Candomblé grew to become a complex syncretism of African and Catholic beliefs – still today, Yoruba and Fon deities (orixás) are often idolized as Catholic saints. In a later interview with O'Hagan, Boulez expressed awe on the percussion of the general public Candomblé ceremony he witnessed, an awful lot like Barrault, who, in his 1959 Nouvelles réflexions sur le théâtre, described his obsession with the Candomblé after witnessing a man spinning about in a trance.Footnote sixty one

The manner in which a being, no matter if black or Indian, all at once finds himself struggling because the Spirit is transmitted to him; the manner through which the medium, after transmitting the Spirit to him, follows alongside this being; the manner during which trances are developed; the ‘purified’ calm that follows; the ritual of those nocturnal ceremonies – all of this struck me, and, in an effort to talk, bound me to these mysterious and endearing people.Footnote 62

it may seem to be outlandish to suggest that any a part of Le Marteau sans Maître, a monolith of independent up to date track, changed into in fact modelled after a Candomblé liturgy. while Boulez didn't explicitly cite the Candomblé as a supply for Le Marteau, with the aid of analyzing the ‘Commentaire I de “Bourreaux de solitude”’ alongside Barrault's account, we in all probability discern traces of spirit possession taking musical kind.Footnote sixty three Boulez accomplished the ‘Commentaire’ in South the united states, mailing the primary completed draft to his writer, frequent version, throughout the 1954 tourFootnote sixty four – and he had already witnessed Candomblé as a minimum as soon as (if no longer a number of instances) by way of this point. The poetic arc of the ‘Commentaire’ follows that of the Candomblé xirê – or, at the least, appears to comply with the ‘ethnographic reconstruction’ of a xirê that you can examine in Barrault's Nouvelles réflexions, or see in a different contemporaneous supply, director Marcel Camus's movie Orfeu Negro (1959). while Barrault and Camus each and every grew to become the Candomblé liturgy into an allegory for a sort of timeless (however in the end western) spirituality, Boulez relocated the allegory from the stage of representation to the stage of sound, employing what may be called sonic allegory. Of path, Le Marteau doesn't ‘sound like Brazil’; it is not a literal reconstruction. Boulez neither stated Aeschylus (like Barrault) nor the story of Orpheus (like Camus); as a substitute, I imply that Boulez's sounds grew to become infused with mythical presence through an allegorical use of the Candomblé.

Figures of the Candomblé liturgy described in ethnographic sources align with the fundamental characters in Barrault's account. In his Nouvelles réflexions, Barrault describes coming into a large gymnasium and gazing a gaggle of white-clothed initiates walk collectively against their pai de santo, the leading priest.Footnote 65 Accompanied through the general beat of a drum – presumably played via the master drummer, or alabé – the practitioners gather before their priest, who's seated subsequent to an altar scattered with Catholic relics and a huge statue of Christ. ‘The glance of the priest and his smile’, writes Barrault, ‘the large Christ's sorrow dominating the desk, and the pervasive scent of the incense gave an odd contact to this small-town cocktail-celebration.’Footnote 66

The liturgy that Barrault describes unfolds with a selected pacing and a gradual increase in intensity – a sort of dramatic arc harking back to Boulez's ‘Commentaire’. the hole bars produce a in a similar way meditative temper, complete with a subdued processional rhythm (example 1).

illustration 1 Opening of ‘Commentaire I de “bourreaux de solitude”’. With form permission of time-honored version AG, Vienna.

Warming up with three leaps of a flute, a xylorimba and pizzicato viola enjoying brief percussive assaults, the ‘Commentaire’ is a rhythmically layered textile supported by means of the irregular accents of a body drum (just like the one which Boulez brought domestic from Brazil). The rating partakes of the cryptographic elegant: with many altering time signatures, the tune seems to conceal an underlying order. Even without cracking the Boulez code, though, we will hear that the ‘Commentaire’ shares a simple rhythmic feature with the Candomblé: a daily pulse – notated with vertical strains within the score – with the intention to undergird a longer unfolding development.

In Barrault's account, the usual drum rhythms accompany the practitioners as they sing a ‘canticle’, and then, all the way through an interval of silence, the main priest and practitioners start smoking ‘cigars … that stimulate hallucination’.Footnote 67 This second of silence is essential to the general narrative arc of the ritual that Barrault describes, simply as the insertion of a fermata one third of how through the ‘Commentaire’ prepares floor for the tumultuous area to comply with (instance 2).

illustration 2 A fermata ends the primary area. With form permission of familiar edition AG, Vienna.

all through the lull, as Barrault debts, a medium elected through the excessive priest – most likely the babakekerê or pai pequeño (‘little priest’) – starts to walk among the initiates. The drums start once again; the practitioners sing; the medium wanders among them; and because the canticle becomes extra severe, finally the medium provokes ecstasy: ‘swiftly probably the most choir singers changed into electrocuted by the medium. Like a wounded man he bent forward and moved interior the circle.’Footnote sixty eight Following the motions of this provoke, Barrault begins to insert vocal utterances drawn from a plenty diverse source. ‘let us observe the “wounded” man. firstly the others don't be aware him … . He appears stunned: “O to to toï”. whatever like a burning arrow has caught within the center of his coronary heart’, and with a grimace of pain, he cries ‘Popoï da!’Footnote 69 This ‘wounded man’ begins to writhe, his actions

harking back to sex or of nausea, of carnal trembling or of vomitous expulsing: his mouth is twisted, his eyes bulging out. ‘Apollo! Apollo!’ … . He starts to whirl circular like a suitable … his face is completely deformed … . He now and again seems to keep up a correspondence with the Spirit who clings to his neck and speaks to him; he lifts his eyelids and eyebrows to ask: ‘Apollo, god of voyages, where are you main me?’Footnote 70

After the fermata, an increase in tempo accompanies an intensification in timbre as the subsequent element of the ‘Commentaire’ commences. The xylorimba participant switches to challenging mallets and the tambour player to four bongos. Boulez notates the heart beat with triangles and brackets rather than vertical strains – pulse areas in place of different beats – and he inserts temporary pauses: we can think about the wounded man bending to the side for a second before the spasms proceed (illustration 3).

instance three A more intense part erupts after the fermata. With type permission of prevalent edition AG, Vienna.

The ‘Commentaire’ at last calms, the usual tempo returning because the bongo participant switches lower back to the tambour; then decrescendo; then lull to a quiet end. it's the intensification halfway via this move, and the next thrashing, jolting rhythms, that betray Boulez's ethnographic source. ‘The candomblé changed into … most outstanding’, he recounted, providing ‘a mixture of sound: the pleasure of the percussion, and then … a calm second, … at all times with voice – the contrast between percussion-voice, like psalms.’Footnote 71 The four instrumental voices in the ‘Commentaire’ replicate the four leading percussion voices in the xirê: the smallest drum (the lê), the center-sized rumpi, and the bell (agogô) repeat their own varied patterns, whereas the largest drum, the rum, organizes the choreography. The rum player, in line with Gerard Béhague, spurs practitioners to trance through ideas of dobrar – or diminution, ‘doubling’ the frequency of repetitions – and virar, suddenly shifting to denser rhythmic patterns.Footnote seventy two The intensification halfway during the ‘Commentaire’, a sort of virar spurred as the tambour participant switches to bongos and as the tempo raises, echoes the sort of rhythmic diminution and timbral intensification wherein Candomblé drummers thrust practitioners into bouts of santo bruto – or ‘wild god’, an especially exuberant form of spirit possession.

This second of spirit possession looks to pose definite questions of an anthropological bent concerning the Candomblé as a performed adventure (what's happening? how do practitioners remember what is happening?) and in regards to the Candomblé's authenticity (does a practitioner basically enter the trance state? does a god truly possess him?). in the state of ‘wild god’, Béhague continues, initiates appear to develop into ‘horses of the deities’ (exin orixá). The ‘concept-picture’ of a selected deity comes down and ‘mounts’ the devotee who enters santo bruto; via a divination online game, the leading priest interprets these acts of spirit possession to investigate which orixá has installed the provoke, who henceforth devotes him or (more regularly) herself to this deity.Footnote seventy three Boulez's commentary that the xirê ‘seemed very bad and violent from time to time’ however ‘eventually became now not in any respect’, seeing that infants stroll among the practitioners, had implications that the composer may also not have supposed. Candomblé is itself a sort of reconstruction, a deliberate and consciously practised performance by which practitioners can enter yet another state of focus, but always with a part of manage. Santo bruto allows the illusion, as David Graeber has written just about certain African fetishes, that the apparent magic one witnesses is both a farce and an genuine non secular transformation. each positions appear to coexist, although impossibly: that the Candomblé is ‘mere show’ – a god does not ‘truly’ mount its devotee – and that santo bruto is a real procedure of becoming. The writhing physique is both an actor and a god ‘within the technique of construction’.Footnote seventy four

The seeming or precise presence of gods – counting on one's perspective – has allowed the Candomblé to become an allegory for a number of forms of religious event. In Barrault's account, it grew to become an allegory for an at first western theatrical essence, the ‘wounded man’ embodying the spirit of Aeschylus's medium, Cassandra. In 1954 the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault adapted the Aeschylus trilogy Oresteia, a creation for which Boulez, eagerly at work on Le Marteau, would deliver music. In Cassandra's opening utterance of the Agamemnon, ‘Ototoi popoi da; Apollo, Apollo!’, unintelligible, foreign syllables burst from her lungs as a choir sings, a whole lot because the Bahian chorus accompanies the wounded man's spasms. She calls out to Apollo as she prophesies Agamemnon's impending homicide, quickly to die with him. whereas sketches of the Compagnie's creation, L'Orestie, are scarce, and Boulez's music is incomplete and no longer carried out, i wonder if Cassandra's ecstasies found their manner into Le Marteau. in accordance with his and Barrault's plan for the creation, Cassandra's prophecy became to be accompanied by using an extended percussion passage (in region of Aeschylus's choir), and one can imagine that this track would have sounded plenty just like the ‘Commentaire’.Footnote 75

in any case, Barrault whitewashed the Candomblé as an expression of primordial Greek-ness. His account concludes with a vignette of himself, again domestic in Paris. He pulls his copy of Aeschylus's tragedy off the shelf and re-imagines Cassandra's prophetic bouts of anxiety as if she had been a Bahian native, believing that the nameless wounded man's cries and spasms printed a pure and timeless ‘authentic life’.Footnote seventy six A narcissistic projection certainly, the Bahian ritual mirrored for Barrault a deeper Self through the myth of the different: ‘now not anything erudite, not the noted Greek concord of our grammar schools, now not the Greece of bleached statues, however an archaic, juicy, human, anguished Greece in constant contact with the secret of life: a magical Greece’.Footnote seventy seven

Barrault became no longer on my own in viewing the Candomblé as an allegory for a magical Greece. In Camus's Orfeu Negro, launched the identical 12 months as Barrault's Nouvelles réflexions, the Candomblé becomes a second in Orpheus's event to the underworld to locate the soul of Eurydice. Set within the mid-twentieth-century slums of Bahia, and featuring Orpheus (played through Breno Mello) as a black guitarist able to play at the carnival, Orfeu Negro depicts the Candomblé as an authentic expression of contact between the dwelling and the useless. The gold-clothed Orpheus attends a liturgy led through a cigar-smoking main priest, and which features both an altar to Christ and a circle dance during which a feminine practitioner turns into possessed, writhing and screaming. The Macumba scene culminates as Eurydice's spirit takes possession of an aged lady standing behind Orpheus: Eurydice's acousmatic voice begs him not to turn around, and when he inevitably does and sees simplest an elderly girl, the voice bids Orpheus farewell continuously.

Boulez in no way credited the Candomblé as an explicit impact on Le Marteau, and never would have stooped to the ‘basic ethnographic reconstructions’ that we can read in Barrault's Réflexions or see in Camus's film. To take the Boulez of 1954 at his notice would mean believing that the Candomblé had hardly made an impression on him. The natives exhibited ‘some dazzling hysterical states’, the composer wrote to Pierre Souvtchinsky, ‘but the rites and cults … addressed to God, to the satan, to the phallus or to the virgin, are always ineffectual rites and cults for his or her own ends’. it is conspicuous that Boulez, at this stage of his construction, distanced himself from Artaud – ‘i am more and more convinced that Artaud turned into on fully the wrong music.’ He disregarded the rituals for tons the equal intent that he brushed aside Catholicism (which he have to have seen mirrored within the Candomblé): worshipping God or the satan, the virgin or the phallus is ‘ineffectual’, in his words, due to the fact that ‘hysteria [is] one of the most passive states’.Footnote seventy eight To ‘reconstruct’ hysteria within the method of Artaud's Pour en finir, from this perspective, can be to aspire to a ‘passive state’, while Boulez sought whatever greater active and also greater summary, musically faraway from Bahia. To ‘organize delirium’ skill to consciously create it, to write down presence.

The accents of Boulez's frame drum, in contrast to a Candomblé bell sample, are reasonably irregular, infrequently an ostinato; the voice of Boulez's flute is neither repetitive nor diatonic in the manner of a Candomblé vocal melody. Yet here is Boulez's composerly conjuring trick. The rhythmic persona of the ‘Commentaire’ mirrors that of the xirê: beginning with a daily pulse interspersed with accents, Boulez follows the poetic arc through which a practitioner, guided with the aid of rhythmic and timbral intensification, enters another state of being. He wrote this being into tune. Barrault's all-too-obtrusive allegorization of Candomblé as ‘a magical Greece’ is, I imply, an apt analogy for Boulez's personal (greater covert) appropriation: sound itself grew to become a kind of redemptive western allegory during which Boulez affirmed the mysterious power, the basic force, of sound.Footnote seventy nine Even in Béhague's ethnographic account, the vigor that tune can seem to wield over Candomblé practitioners turns into an indirect allegory for musical autonomy. ‘The instant name to possession’, he mentioned, ‘comes from the song itself’.Footnote 80 song wields its personal mysterious powers: the results of the Candomblé drums turn into an allegory for the instant religious energy of the track itself, a tacit acknowledgement of the autonomy of musical aesthetics. And ‘the song itself’ was the web page of Boulez's own allegorizing.

Musicology has encountered this situation before. Boulez appropriated an at the start spiritual kind without its original spirituality, a bid for musical purity alongside the lines of Igor Stravinsky's disavowal of his own ethnographic sources. The mythic vigour of a springtime rite turns into relocated, through a composer's disavowal of ‘extra-musical’ influences, into the autonomous house of track. Debunking this modernist delusion of ‘the song itself’, Richard Taruskin cited the many people songs that Stravinsky wrote into Le Sacre du printemps, and established that Stravinsky invoked the poetics of the rite – even if a virgin sacrifice or the marriage depicted in Les Noces – to convey a primitive immediacy of cognizance. For Taruskin, Stravinsky's independent track was an endeavour to embody in musical kind a Eurasianist dream of a united Russian spirit and Russian land between Asia and Europe. It become a land floating somewhere in the track itself.Footnote eighty one

For Boulez, too, the primitive state evoked by using a rite beckoned in opposition t a sonic utopia, however this utopia changed into even less worldly. He didn't demand a brand new countrywide cognizance, nor did he imagine that the sounds of the ethnographic different might discover a more common or greater most suitable political fact. as an alternative, his effort to forge the essence of the other's hysteria devoid of representing a particular ‘different’ reflected in all probability the oldest, purest, and quintessentially western philosophical dream: ontology.

Conclusion: To have performed with the judgement of Ontology

[I]n its closure, it's fatal that representation continues.

– DerridaFootnote eighty two

there's perhaps no more suitable time period for Greek essence than ontology. ‘A Greek invention first of all’, to cite Derrida, the term refers to a discourse (logos) about being (on), premised on an ontological change between selected issues of the area and their metaphysical ground.Footnote eighty three Drawing from Heidegger, Derrida held that ontology presupposes a change between ‘Seiend (being in English, étant in French, ens in Latin)’, and ‘Sein which means in French Être, in Latin Esse. In English, there is not any strategy to translate the difference between Seiend and Sein’, which is why translators occasionally render ‘Seiend as “being” with a lowercase “b” and Sein as “Being” with a capital “B” which is fairly not easy’.Footnote 84 Lowercase ‘being’ refers to an entity existing in its temporal and spatial specificity – we are able to think of the selected sounds of Boulez's ‘Commentaire’, or the writhing body of Barrault's imagined ‘wounded man’, as ‘beings’ during this experience – whereas Sein (or Being) refers to a greater summary feel of presence that's presupposed on every occasion one writes. besides the fact that children, as Derrida contended, ‘Être/Sein is nothing’: there is not any single ‘essence’ by which to unite different beings, seeing that ‘that you may under no circumstances locate anything else any place that we will call Sein, and yet Sein is presupposed every time we say “here is a being”’.Footnote eighty five This linguistic difference between Seiend and Sein grew to be, in Derrida's philosophy, an ontological différance between the signifier – the certain material observe – and the signified, which is greatest and immaterial. by means of observing that the signifier and signified, like ‘being’ and ‘Being’, suggest diverse and incommensurate temporal orders, Derrida argued that the total of western metaphysics, which ‘has been constituted in a gadget (of idea or language) determined on the basis of and in view of presence’, had been working below the spell of a fiction.Footnote 86 Presence, or Being, does not ‘exist’ in the strict sense.

Ontology, the bedrock of European philosophy, looks often in Derrida to be little more than a online game of writing – although removed from inane. it is a discourse that grapples with the nature of being through the logos; it is, through ‘motive, discourse, calculation, speech – trademarks skill all that – and also “gathering”: legein, that which gathers’.Footnote 87 If a logos is a ‘gathering’, ontology gathers many disparate beings below the ordinary feel of Being. this is why, for Levinas, ‘ontology as first philosophy is a philosophy of power’.Footnote 88 Philosophical discourses about Being had always been constituted through a system of appropriation-with the aid of-assimilation, considering the fact that an ontology takes kind as the different – something is backyard of Being – turns into ‘gathered’ inside a western logos. although Levinas articulated this ‘ontological imperialism’ within the abstract, his political implications were clear adequate. As Europe asserted its ‘being’ via financial exploitation and armed forces domination, ontology arose to legitimize the coherency and intellectual supremacy of ‘the West’. This ‘West’, in turn, held ontology as a ‘pure’ and neutral medium to comprehend the area, since ‘Being, with out the density of beings, is the mild in which beings become intelligible’.Footnote 89 ‘The West’ gathers itself by way of subordinating and subsuming whatever thing does not enter this easy.

Artaud and Barrault were after a kind of essence: the sensory barrage of the Balinese theatre or the spasms of a Candomblé practitioner became allegories for the Being of theatre. Even for Artaud, this essence was (on occasion) Greek: a Tarahumara ceremony that he witnessed in 1936 became, in his writings, ‘the ceremony of the kings of Atlantis as Plato describes it within the pages of Critias’. He persevered:

Plato talks about a strange ceremony which, as a result of cases that threatened the way forward for their race, became carried out by means of the kings of Atlantis.

besides the fact that children legendary the existence of Atlantis, Plato describes the Atlanteans as a race of magical origin. The Tarahumara, who're, for me, the direct descendants of the Atlanteans, continue to commit themselves to the observance of the magical rite.Footnote ninety

All this allegorizing amounted to a navel-watching myth that a deeper Self might emerge from the other, just a little like a Catholic pass emerging from the Mexican soil. ‘Philosophy is an egology’, Levinas declared, as a result of ontology assumes that change is but a mirage concealing sameness.Footnote 91

via disavowing the ‘basic ethnographic reconstructions’ that we will hear in Artaud or examine in Barrault, Boulez displaced these explicit western allegories onto sound. Sound grew to be ‘radically different’, and écriture became Boulez's ‘impartial medium’. here is ontological appropriation: musical writing turns into the pure light in which a composer writes the other into the gold standard area of western music. ‘actual’ sounds, what Boulez known as pure or impartial sounds, emerged for the composer most effective when the particular sonic world that he heard in South the united states, or that he encountered via recordings of Laotian or Cambodian track, have been effaced, neutralized, and made part of his summary musical imaginings.

is this no longer how an ontology – any ontology – is made? A manner of extraction and inscription makes reality thinkable past inaccurate appearances, a procedure of writing that makes the very big difference of reality from appearance viable. besides the fact that children, getting to know Boulez could remind us, to play just a little together with his personal ideas, that sound doesn't ‘turn into ontological’ until it passes via écriture. Ontology is neither a given neither is it a neutral medium – it only seems so, as if to name an ontology is to name what in fact is, which is a component of the trick of the term. Ontology also cloaks the real with a shroud of mystery: a veil conceals many exact voices, ‘individualized’ sounds that fall mute whenever an ontology comes into being. And this equal veil often functions as a bolster for scholarly authority. Ontology is a writerly conjuring trick, notwithstanding a ordinary one because it looks so innocuous, connoting the ‘in itself’ of things – a real sound beyond language; a presence past what we will re-present.

In exact many years, although, many have sought to rescue ontology from its historic baggage as a philosophy of power. For proponents of the ‘ontological turn’ in anthropology, there are many viable ontologies. The anthropologist's job, based on Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, is not to ‘[explain] the area of the other’, but in its place to ‘[multiply] our world’ – that is, to expand the discursive ‘worlds’ of anthropology by means of letting the other continue to be other. ‘The different [is] the expression of a probable world’.Footnote ninety two From this standpoint, ontology is not any longer ‘a discourse (logos) in regards to the nature of being’, but, as David Graeber writes, has become ‘a word for “being”, “means of being”, or “mode of existence”’.Footnote ninety three The state of santo bruto can not be judged as true or phony if the practitioner belongs to a very distinctive order of being. Yet, if it is an ‘illegal stream’, as Viveiros de Castro claims, for the anthropologist to name what seem like magical moments equivalent to santo bruto both authentic or false, conserving instead we're witnessing a radically other ontology, then the ethical container becomes flattened.Footnote 94 The concept that many other worlds exist, protected from the anthropologist's Eurocentric gaze by way of a look after known as ‘ontology’, looks to fall into an moral catch 22 situation commonplace from the days of Franz Boas and his students. If we place the different in one other ‘possible world’ – which is, in spite of everything, of our making – then there is not any basis for actuality, and no intent to take the other severely. therefore no depend how ‘radical’ or innovative, to cite Paul Rabinow, attempts to assemble relativistic theories of cultural difference chance ‘[leading] – despite their intent – to a type of nihilism, a reduction of the other to the equal’.Footnote 95 mockingly, during this flattened container through which many ontologies develop into equally feasible, ‘ontology’ regains its common meaning. If any entity may have or belong to an ontology, then all and sundry and every thing is equally ‘ontological’ (and, then, why not have ontology on the seashore? or ontology in mattress?).Footnote 96 even though it will possibly look radical to suppose of many possible ontologies, as soon because the time period is in play, there is simply ever one ontology. It continues to be a discourse, a light-weight through which to illuminate ‘beings’, making other worlds a part of our own.

Ontology has no longer changed a good deal since Derrida or Levinas wrote about ‘the West’. It has simplest develop into a kind of trump card for scholarly authority, for the reason that, as Graeber suggests, ‘the difficulty with cultural relativism is that it places people in bins now not of their own devising’: ontology ‘just substitutes a deeper field’.Footnote ninety seven in the musicological ‘field’, in the meantime, ontology looks to have ‘imperialized’ how some scholars feel about sound. making use of Eduardo Kohn's fairly primary definition of ontology – ‘the study of “reality”’ – to the look at of sound, we are able to see that sound frequently stands for simply that: reality.Footnote 98 ‘Noise [is] the floor’, as Christoph Cox writes, ‘that gives the situation of chance for every articulate sound, as that from which all speech, music, and signal emerge, and to which they return’. Conceiving of the ‘sonic flux’ as an ‘immemorial material movement’ that people can actualize with the aid of making music, however which at all times goes past the human, Cox positions noise as Being itself: the type of presence in which any selected sound or piece of music can also be understood.Footnote 99 United in a challenge that Brian Kane termed ‘onto-aesthetics’, Cox holds that sound art discloses its personal ontological condition simply as Nina Eidsheim holds that certain kinds of avant-garde observe – reminiscent of underwater singing – show the vibrational rely at the heart of sound.Footnote one hundred whereas sonic flux resounds beyond human notion, vibration – which is Eidsheim's update to ‘noise’ – turns into the elusive pure presence underlying what we are able to characterize. Ontology, in this experience, is a method to reconfigure subjectivity – ‘if we cut back and restrict the realm we inhabit’ by preserving to preconceived notions about sound, she argues, ‘we cut back and restrict ourselves’.Footnote 101 A big difference abides between song-as-look (some thing created) and sound-as-fact, and ‘sensing sound’ allows one to break away of Self-versus-different binaries that always ‘in the reduction of and limit’ our self.

despite these endeavours to ethically remediate the concept of ontology, the resonances between our existing-day sonic ontologies and the sonic allegories of Boulez and Artaud's day should still make us cautious about the usage of ‘ontology’ as a stand-in for fact. Of course, there is an outstanding distance between Artaud's pure theatre and Mexico, as between Bahia and Barrault's magical Greece. without problems describing Artaud and Barrault's writings is enough to find the ethnocentric attitude that we be aware of (by means of now) to have been a part of artistic modernism. however by some means when the ontology of sound is in query it turns into harder to answer: where is fact and the place is look? For Clifford, all ethnography is (in some feel) surrealist as a result of ethnography all the time includes aestheticizing its findings.Footnote 102 The other looks to me through the writing that i know, fitting comprehensible as my illustration; the art kinds and expressions of the different resonate with my perception of my very own tradition, and as a result the different's lifestyle, considered against mine, turns into a form of artwork. In sum, all tradition may also be whatever thing of an ethnographic artefact and a work of art, precise as a result of farce.

If all ethnography employs surrealist approaches, at the least tacitly, i would mission that sonic ontology-making is surrealistic too. Which amounts to a reasonably elementary conclusion: ontology-making is, in spite of everything, simply that. A making. but it surely is a peculiar sort of poiesis, considering ontology claims to latest things as they definitely are. pondering via Derrida's conclusions about Artaud, although, i'm wondering if ontology ‘truly’ gets us nearer to the true. ‘In its closure, it is deadly that illustration continues.’ exactly as he sought to disavow an older metaphysical regime – in Derrida's phrases, to ‘kill the daddy’, each the non secular Father who judges the realm from afar and the writer-God who makes theatre right into a mere ‘double’ of a metaphysical script – Artaud stayed inside metaphysics. As soon as one acknowledges presence, it is already a representation. Presence is a mirage of the true, an illusory sur-fact vanishing like sound. we are able to see the boundaries of illustration, its closure, but we can't circulate past it. as an alternative, sound experiences often ‘reconstructs’ an historical modernist conjuring trick. Ontology-making conceals the maker, fitting another discursive guise for western Writerly Authority. most likely it is time to discover a new device. Or somewhat, possibly it is time to have carried out with the self-esteem that sends us on infinite discursive quests for sound past the human, or sound ‘submit’-human. allow us to dispense with reality as soon as and for all.




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